Immunomodulatory Effect of Vitamin C and E on Non-Specific Immune Parameters in fishes: A Review
Keywords:Aquaculture, Immunostimulant, Ascorbic acid, Alpha-tocopherol, Immunity
Aquaculture has been fastest growing industry for several decades that include fish and shellfish production. Culture of fishes in narrow space or uncontrolled production becomes the reason of various infectious diseases in fishes. So, prevention from diseases and increasing immunity is important for healthy production. There are many ways in which immunity may be enhanced like use of antibiotics and vaccines in fishes. The use of antibiotics is not very successful and vaccination is an expensive method, so there is need of eco-friendly and less expensive method. Immunostimulants are chemical compounds that activate the innate or non-specific immune system of fishes by activating the cells of immune system. Several vitamins like vitamin E (Alpha-Tocopherol) and vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) act as an immunostimulant. Vitamin E is a fat soluble compound that enhances the growth, reproduction and survival by increasing the non-specific immunity. It also acts as an antioxidant by controlling the production of free-radicals. Vitamin C is also essential for fish growth, health and survival. It enhances the phagocytosis, serum haemolytic activity, complement activity and proliferation of immune cells. In past few years, stabled beneficial effects of immunostimulants in fishes promoted their application for disease management in aquaculture practice. As we have taken up similar study on the effects of vitamins as natural immunostimulants on Asian, catfish Clarias batrachus, so, this review is an attempt to throw light on the role of Vitamin C and Vitamin E as an immunostimulants in fish culture.