Hazards of phthalate exposure on fish reproduction – a review


  • Kampan Bisai Department of Fishery Sciences, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore - 721102, West Bengal, India
  • Manoj Kumar Pati Vidyasagar University
  • Bijay Kumar Behera Biotechnology Laboratory, ICAR-Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute, Barrackpore – 700 120, West Bengal, India




Phthalates, plasticizers, environmental chemicals, toxic exposure, fish reproduction


Phthalates (diesters of phthalic acid) are widely used as plasticizers and additives in many consumer products. Laboratory animal studies have reported the endocrine-disrupting and reproductive effects of phthalates and human exposure to this class of chemicals is a concern. Several phthalates including DEHP, BBP, DBP and etc. have been recognized as substances of high concern. This study aims to systematically review the literature on effects of exposure to phthalates including ovarian effects, testicular effects, effects on reproductive hormonal level as well as gene level and effects on breeding performances in fishes. Related literature search was done through Scopus, Google Scholar, Pub-Med and the reference lists of previous review articles to identify relevant articles published in each subject area. The inclusion criteria were original research, cross-sectional studies, case-control studies, interventional studies and review articles. The search was limited to English language papers. Finally, this review paper provides all current information on the hazards of various phthalate exposures on fish reproduction. The available data demonstrate that phthalate exposure is associated with reproductive disorders in both male and female fishes. Exposure of phthalates causes alteration in reproductive gene expression level as well hormonal level, changes in gamete quality parameters and also has impacts on spawning performances in both sexes.






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