South Asian Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol 3, No 5 (2013)

Apr 20
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Toll‐like receptors: The innate immune receptors with ingenious anti‐ viral paradigm

Yashpal S. Malik, Kuldeep Sharma, Lalit Mohan Jeena, Naveen Kumar, Subhankar Sircar, Kaushal Kumar Rajak, Kuldeep Dhama


The appreciative progress in our understanding of the host defence mechanisms through innate and adaptive immune systems has led us to improve therapeutic protocols through the inflection of immune factors. Amidst
plethora of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), the Toll‐like receptors (TLRs) have received substantial consideration as potential regulator and controller of the immune response through their pathogen‐associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The finding that endogenous ligands, microbial constituents, synthetic components are recognized by TLRs, raised interest in these receptors as potential targets for the development of new therapies for multiple diseases. The TLRs are among the rare targets which are now a days becoming commercially available for treatment of viral diseases and the success has been achieved with imiquimod (TLR7) for human papilloma/ warts treatment. Numerous other therapeutics targeting the TLRs are under pre‐clinical and clinical trials. The novel advances in TLR research shall expound their functions and prospective therapeutic applications. This review updates the usages of these innate immunomodulators in combating various viral frailtes describing in brief the anti‐viral regimens and their potential applications for safeguarding health of humans as well as animals.

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